Phytochemical and Physicochemical Analysis of the Invitro Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activities of Juglans Regia L. Bark (Walnut Bark)
Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical screenings of Juglans regia are conducted to assure its purity, safety, and efficacy, as well as to determine the antibacterial and fungal activities and inhibitory zones of extracts against certain bacterial and fungal strains, with the aim of overcoming resistance. J. regia Linn, also known as akhrot in Pakistan, is a member of the Juglandaceae family, with a dense, long-lasting bark that is fragrant and resinous. The tree has a history of medical usage in the treatment of multiple ailments. The present research focuses on using preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical analyses to standardize Juglans regia Linn bark and to explore its antibacterial and antifungal activities. These analyses were conducted through microscopic analysis of the bark and determination of its quality parameters. Four different extracts of J. regia bark were tested for antimicrobial activity against a variety of harmful fungi and bacteria. Phytochemical analysis indicated the existence of reducing sugars, alkaloids, tannins, phenols, steroids, and saponins. Stone cells with sclereids, phloem fibers, oil cells, and lignified fibers are some of the observed microscopic characteristics of the powder. Antimicrobial analysis of J. regia bark extracts at concentrations of 300 and 400 µg/ml revealed that the ethanol and chloroform extracts had a considerable inhibitory effect on the development of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. This research will serve as a reference point for correctly identifying crude medications. It will also support the use of natural products as medications and validate the antibacterial and antifungal properties of J. regia (walnut bark) through clinical trials.
Keywords: antimicrobial activity, antifungal activity, Juglans regia.
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